Global temperatures are increasing, erratic precipitation patterns are becoming the norm, and extreme climatic events are becoming more severe and frequent. A critique of the research is provided along with evidence from the coinciding Primary Interview article to propose modifications of one existing framework that fits the Ethiopian context .
About thousands Ethiopian emigrants live abroad. Similarly, vulnerability is related to factors that affect the likelihood of the event or condition occurring and the ability to cope with the event—dependent on access to assets or capital—if and when it occurs .
Geographical Journal A weakness to this model is that it lacks information on the strength of individual influences; similarly, it focuses on complete loss of land as a result of disaster, which may not be applicable in slow-onset environmental changes that also increase vulnerability but do not completely destroy the habitability of the landscape .
While both rapid- and slow-onset environmental changes may trigger displacement and mobility, for whom, where, and when migration occurs is often determined by the socio-economic context of these individuals or households [14,30].
Thirdly, land degradation drives migration by deteriorating agricultural land and crop yield through salinization, soil erosion, and toxic materials while also increasing the risk of flood .
Relevant migration drivers such loss of livelihood, land, social welfare including hunger and food availability, and a decrease in work opportunities are accounted for, however, they are viewed as a chain of events .
In the specific case of Ethiopia, political drivers include annual property or land tax, land tenure regulations, and governmental loan structures, which may influence the decision to migrate.
Environmental changes may affect political drivers through conflict and public policy . Did our remittances help reduce the poverty rate in Ethiopia or place an added burden on the poor by grossly distorting the local economy?
It will be important to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that rural households hold in regards to migration, and how external factors such as slow-onset environmental changes affect these determinants .
Households are dependent on seasonal rainfall for their livelihoods. Nationally however, there are large gaps in infrastructure development, risk reduction and coping strategies, and political will. Migration surveys that do exist focus on economic or rapid-onset environmental disaster as prompts to population movement.
These new, comprehensive views of migration in environmental contexts have only surfaced in the last five to six years [2,13]. Data from the Ministry of Health.
Do our remittances provide economic buoyancy to help keep afloat the doomed ship of a ruthless dictatorship? Mariam Oct 14, Alemayehu G. Similarly, return migration is represented in this diagram, indicating that environmental conditions and capital are dynamic, and that the circumstances leading to outmigration at one point in time can change and lead to return-migration.
This method first developed for applications in animal genetics and breading research 12 — Land degradation, a by-product of environmental changes, has been cited as another factor that results in migration. Literature review provides evidence that short-term population migration is a common adaptation or coping strategy to environmental stressors.
Thus, it is also necessary to review contextual factors of where an individual may migrate. While the drivers of migration have not yet reached consensus in the literature, this model, with appropriate adaptations as garnered from primary interviews, provides a range of drivers that might predict the volume, direction, and frequency of migratory movement, as well as the different levels of analysis at which migration might be considered in Ethiopia [3,4].
In some specific cultures, migration is seen as a key part of social and cultural development, and to elucidate that cultural norm from some of the other drivers may in fact be a difficult task .
According to the Ethiopian demographic and health survey, the total fertility rate at national level was 4. Ethiopia has a long history of poor infrastructure development, has few risk mitigation, adaptation, and coping strategies, and arguably has poor political will.
In a country such as Ethiopia where nearly 85 percent of the population is engaged in small-scale rain-fed agriculture, it is critical to understand how and why environmental degradation is driving individuals into cities .
Of note, diverging reasons for migration come out of organizations such as the World Bank, which in its Urban Migration Study cites education and employment opportunities as the top two reasons individuals in-migrated to cities .
Land tenure in Ethiopia is inherited and cannot be sold, thus, when a family cannot maintain their land and have lost their assets, migration results in the loss of their land as it becomes reabsorbed by the government.
The urbanization of rural farmers into cities with fractured and weak infrastructure often has negative consequences for the health of the migrant individuals exposing them to a new set of hazards.
Bergen, Norway Belay K. This value indicates that much effort should be made to attain the targets set in the national population policy of Ethiopia by Mexican migrants in the U. Reduced crop and livestock productivity as a result of environmental change may result in the sale of other assets used in agriculture, including oxen, thus reducing household income.PSM, ATT, FGT and Gini index are employed to analyze the data collected, in which they are used to measure to what extent foreign remittances can affect the household welfare, poverty and inequality by comparing the remittance receiver and non-receiver households.
What determinants affect remittance trends and patterns in Ethiopia. Print Reference this. What are the determinants that affect remittance trends and patterns of the Ethiopian immigrants in Sweden? Since the aim of the study is to find out the factors that determine the patterns and trends of remittance flow; the two approaches can.
Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia. Dawit Getnet Ayele Author information Fertility is the main element to affect the welfare of mother. The survival of a child can be affected by high fertility and shorter birth intervals. Hinde A, Mturi A. Recent Trends in Tanzanian.
Remittance is an extremely important source of foreign exchange for Ethiopia, perhaps larger than the export earning of the country in its foreign exchange generation capacity.
However, the industry is besieged by a number of problems. Introduction. Global temperatures, precipitation patterns, and the severity and frequency of extreme climatic events are changing . These environmental changes are having many deleterious effects on the livelihoods of poor rural farmers globally who depend on rain-fed agriculture.
remittance growth and unemployment is expected to be negatively correlated with remittances growth. Changes in income of expatriates would affect the remittances through.Download