Levy in summarising his paper on projective techniques in marketing includes the observation that, often, projective techniques enable respondents to express themselves in fuller, more subtle and in fairer ways than they could in responding to direct questioningand that this can therefore achieve greater validity than is possible using methods whose reliability appears to be more comforting to the researcher.
Hey Sunanda, Here i am sharing information on Projective techniques in consumer research, please check attachment. However, how the findings from projective techniques are analysed and how valid and reliable they are is hardly touched on at all in the market research literature.
Focus group[ edit ] The focus group is marketing research technique for qualitative data that involves a small group of people 6—10 that share a common set characteristics demographics, attitudes, etc. People buy product features, functional benefits, high order benefits and emotional benefits.
Probing is used to confirm any interpretations. Projective techniques in market research Boddy. Multiple techniques are used and results are concluded to be reliable when the same conclusions are drawn from multiple techniques which is equivalent to the approach to abstract things, where multiple questions are asked.
Projective techniques allow psychologists to uncover deep associations, emotions and thought processes. Use projective techniques to complement laddering.
Ask respondents to complete the sentence. This paper aims to look at current reports of how projective techniques are analysed and what support for their reliability and validity exists, and aims to stimulate debate in this area of market research so Projective techniques in market research a better and more accessible understanding of the subject can be offered to those entering research as potential practitioners, to interested clients, and to researchers who are more used to a quantitative or direct questioning approach.
Associations You ask respondents to link a word or image to a category, product, brand, or event. Projective techniques are fun.
The personal characteristics of the moderator in focus group discussions are said Will et al. To some extent, these emotional drivers of behavior lie below conscious awareness.
He notes, however, that research competence is a challenge in any type of research and that familiarity with using projective techniques increases their reliability. Research participants often like these exercises even though the main purpose is not always clear to them.
Then ask how the association ties to the topic. They are purposely set up to ask key questions in an indirect way.
The advantage of laddering is it clearly links specific product features, benefits, and emotional benefits together. In psychology there are criticisms of the reliability of projective techniques. The more advanced techniques require training in application and especially in analysis. The Use of Projective Techniques in Market Research Although market researchers are interested in deep emotions and thought processes specific to brands and products, the purpose is still to get at those feelings, motivations, attitudes, biases and cognitions that are below rational, conscious awareness.
Such analysis is perhaps implicit in the way qualitative market researchers phrase some questions. They can easily turn this bridge to nowhere into a great opportunity. Ask respondents to project to a third-party. This differentiation is useful to make at the beginning of this paper as the techniques are often used interchangeably and the distinction between them may have become blurred in the minds of some qualitative market researchers.
Consumers tend to be aware of their conscious motivations and decision-making processes. Multiple techniques are used and results are concluded to be reliable when the same conclusions are drawn from multiple techniques which is equivalent to the approach to abstract things, where multiple questions are asked.
This sort of criticism has led to the controversial status of projective techniques in clinical psychology, as described by Lilienfeld et al. Conclusions Projective techniques are almost universally said by market researchers to be useful but few researchers other than Haire have provided evidence of their reliability and validity.
It contains high levels of internal validity the extent to which one is able to say that no other variables except the one being studied caused the resultbut the external validity is low. Some association techniques include word associations, imagery associations, and personifications.
Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding.
In psycho-drawing, as another example, the most prominent features of a drawn brand may be interpreted by the researcher as being the most salient for consumers of that brand rather than as being the easiest aspects of a brand for consumers to draw.
To some extent, these emotional drivers of behavior lie below conscious awareness. As with measuring abstract things, our inability to phrase a perfect question causes confusion between truth and error.
They conclude that such techniques are not inherently unreliable but can be poorly used or unreliably scored. These benefits to the process of research undoubtedly help account for the continued popularity of the use of projective techniques in market research.
Reports of the usefulness of projective techniques in market research Reports by market research practitioners of the usefulness of projective techniques in market research are virtually unanimous in their praise of the insights offered by using projective techniques.Projective techniques are often used in market research to help uncover findings in areas where those researched are thought to be reluctant or unable to expose their thoughts and feelings via more straightforward questioning techniques.
Projective techniques in Consumer Research ISSN Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 28, 49 the most flexible projective technique in marketing and. The use of projective techniques in qualitative marketing research has become an accepted as well as expected practice in the industry.
Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews (whether face-to-face or online) are particularly suitable for activities that go beyond the question-response format. Projective Techniques in Qualitative Market Research Posted on 02/09/ by Kirsty Nunez Blog Qualitative market research is often aimed at increasing understanding of consumers’ thoughts and feelings toward brands, products, concepts, advertising, social issues and other important topics.
Projective test can be used in marketing: The projective or objective tests are used in marketing research extensively. The projective tests are used in qualitative marketing research – it helps to identify the potential customers and associations. Projective techniques are often used in market research to help uncover findings in areas where those researched are thought to be reluctant or unable to expose their thoughts and feelings via.Download